Sidebar Top
Back to Articles

Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia


People with panic disorder suffer severe attacks of panic-which may make them feel like they are having a heart attack or are going crazy-for no apparent reason. Symptoms include heart palpitations, chest pain or discomfort, sweating, trembling, tingling sensations, feeling of choking or shortness of breath, fear of dying, fear of losing control, and feelings of unreality. Panic disorder often occurs with agoraphobia, in which people are afraid of having a panic attack in a place from which escape would be difficult, so they may at times tend to avoid these places.

Panic Attack
A Panic Attack is an abrupt onset of an episode of intense fear or discomfort, which peaks in approximately 10 minutes or less, and includes at least four of the following symptoms:
·  a feeling of imminent danger or doom
·  the need to escape
·  palpitations
·  sweating
·  trembling
·  shortness of breath or a smothering feeling
·  a feeling of choking
·  chest pain or discomfort
·  nausea or abdominal discomfort
·  dizziness or lightheadedness
·  a sense of things being unreal, depersonalized
·  a fear of losing control or "going crazy"
·  a fear of dying
·  tingling sensations
·  chills or hot flushes

There are three types of Panic Attacks:

  • Unexpected - the attack "comes out of the blue" without warning and for no discernable reason.
  • Situational: situations in which a person experiences symptoms (such as when entering a tunnel)
  • Situational Predisposition: situations in which a person is likely to have symptoms, but does not always have one (such as an individual who at times experiences symptoms while driving).

Panic Disorder
Panic Disorder is diagnosed when an individual suffers at least two unexpected Panic Attacks, followed by at least 1 month of concern over having another attack. Sufferers are also prone to a situational predisposition attack. The frequency and severity of the attacks varies from person to person, an individual might suffer from repeated attacks for weeks, while another will have short bursts of very severe attacks.


The sufferer may worry about the physical and emotional consequences of the Panic Attacks. Many become convinced that the attacks indicate an undiagnosed illness and will submit to frequent medical tests. Even after tests come back negative, a person with Panic Disorder may remain worried that they have a physical illness. Some individuals will change their behavioral patterns, avoiding the scene of a previous attack for example, in the hopes of preventing yet another attack.


Agoraphobia often, but not always, coincides with Panic Disorder. Agoraphobia is characterized by a fear of having a panic attack in a place from which escape is difficult. Many sufferers refuse to leave their homes, often for years at a time. Others develop a fixed route, or territory, from which they cannot deviate, for example the route between home and work. It becomes hard for these people to travel beyond what they consider to be their safety zones without suffering severe anxiety.


The age of onset of Panic Disorder varies from late adolescence to mid-thirties. Relatively few suffer from the disorder in childhood.